Material Properties
We recognize the need to perform FEA and modeling to predict and design a piezoelectric transducer. This article provides resources on our material properties.
In this Article
Piezoelectric Materials
A full comparison of the material properties we have is available on the main site. The table comparing PZT-5A to PZT-5J and PZT-5H is included below. Here is a brief summary:
- PZT-5A - is best for applications that have extreme temperatures and/or a widely varying temperature but the performance is desired to remain constant.
- PZT-5H - has the best piezoelectric material properties but is influenced by temperature change and has a slightly reduced temperature range.
- PZT-5J - a compromise between 5H and 5A
- PMN-PT Single Crystal Piezo - It is inherently different that piezoceramic both in application and in handling, and therefore should not be thought of as a 'drop in' replacement of piezoceramic parts, but rather as 'ground up' design option for applications requiring higher energy density than possible with piezoceramics.
PIEZO.COM'S Designation | Symbol | Units | PSI-5A4E | PSI-5J1E | PSI-5H4E | Single Crystal Piezo |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
PIEZOELECTRIC | ||||||
Industry Designations | Navy type II; Industry Type 5A | Navy type V; Industry Type 5J | Navy type VI; Industry Type 5H | PMN-PT | ||
Material Number | 3195HD | 3222HD | 3203HD | |||
Composition | Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) | Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) | Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) | |||
Relative Dielectric Constant (@ 1 KHz) | K ^{T}_{3} | 1800 | 2100 | 3800 | 4753 | |
Piezoelectric "d" coefficients relate the Strain Produced / Electric Field Applied or the Short Circuit Charge Density Produced / Stress Applied | ||||||
d _{33} | meter/Volt or Coulomb/Newton |
390 x 10 ^{-12} | 500 x 10 ^{-12} | 650 x 10 ^{-12} | 1285 ^{-12}pC/N | |
d _{31} | meter/Volt or Coulomb/Newton |
-190 x 10 ^{-12} | -210 x 10 ^{-12} | -320 x 10 ^{-12} | -646 ^{-12}pC/N | |
Piezoelectric "g" coefficients relate the Open Circuit Electric Field Produced / Stress Applied or the Strain Produced / Charge Density Applied | ||||||
g _{33} | Volt-meter/Newton or meter ^{2}/Coulomb |
24.0 x 10 ^{-3} | 23.0 x 10 ^{-3} | 19.0 x 10 ^{-3} | 30.55 ^{-3}Vm/N | |
g _{31} | Volt-meter/Newton or meter ^{2}/Coulomb |
-11.6 x 10 ^{-3} | -10.4 x 10 ^{-3} | -9.5 x 10 ^{-3} | -15.36 ^{-3}Vm/N | |
Coupling Coefficient | k _{33} | 0.72 | 0.74 | 0.75 | 0.89 | |
k _{31} | 0.35 | 0.37 | 0.44 | 0.46 | ||
Polarizing Field | Ep | Volt/meter | > 2 x 10 ^{6} | > 1.7 x 10 ^{6} | > 1.5 x 10 ^{6} | |
Initial Depolarizing Field | Ec | Volt/meter | ~ 5 x 10 ^{5} | ~ 4 x 10 ^{5} | ~ 3 x 10 ^{5} | |
Coercive Field | Ec | Volt/meter | ~ 1.2 x 10 ^{6} | ~ 1.0 x 10 ^{6} | ~ 8 x 10 ^{5} | 4.5-6 kV/cm |
MECHANICAL | ||||||
Density | δ | Kg/meter ^{3} | 7800 | 7800 | 7800 | 8.12 g/cc |
Mechanical Q | 80 | 60 | 32 | ~150 | ||
Elastic (Young's) Modulus | Y ^{E}_{3} | Newton/meter ^{2} | 5.2 x 10 ^{10} | 5.1 x 10 ^{10} | 5.0 x 10 ^{10} | 2.04 ^{10}N/m^{2} |
Some additional material properties can be gleaned from the attached datasheet. The 3203 material is PZT-5H and 3195 is PZT-5A.
Thermal Dependency of Material Properties
The material properties can change due to temperature. PZT 5J is not pictured but it is a hybrid between PZT-5A and PZT-5H.
MSDS: PZT-5A & PZT-5H
The material safety datasheet (MSDS) of our piezoelectric materials is included here:
MSDS PDF. A breakdown of the lead content and other materials is included below.
PZT materials, although they contain lead, are ROHS exempt under Article 58(2).
Here is the MSDS of the solder and the solder flux we use and recommend in our kit.
Packaging Materials
There are thin layers of epoxy between each material; but for modeling purposes this layer can be ignored (<0.02 mm thick). The operating temperature range for sealed products is -40 to 120 C due to the epoxy used. Higher temperature, up to 150 C, is available with alternative epoxy.
Properties | Units | FR4 | Copper | Polyimide | 304 Steel | Polysulfone | Polyester | Brass |
Young’s Modulus | GPa | 26 | 110 | 4.1 | 193 | 5.72 | 3.65 | 100 |
Poisson’s ratio | 0.17 | 0.34 | 0.34 | 0.29 | 0.4 | 0.48 | 0.32 | |
Density | g/cc | 1.9 | 8.93 | 1.81 | 8.00 | 1.37 | 1.38 | 8.30 |
Ultimate Tensile Strength | MPa | 368 | 210 | 231 | 505 | 81 | 177 | 800 |
Tensile Yield Strength | MPa | 340 | 33.3 | 90 | 215 | 87.9 | 92.8 | 500 |
Thermal Expansion Coefficient | µm/m-C | 15 | 16.4 | 34.3 | 17.3 | 31 | 17 | 22.0 |
Thermal Conductivity | W/m-K | 0.4 | 398 | 0.26 | 16.2 | 0.26 | 0.15 | 200 |
Specific Heat | J/g-C | 0.6 | 0.39 | 1.09 | 0.5 | 910 | 1.17 | 0.38 |
Maximum Operating Temperature | C | 130 | 1083 | 275 | 1400 | 160 | 220 | 750 |